He has developed his views and positions across many fields, including social, political and his political activity helped bring about democracy in Brazil, and culminated with his appointment as the Brazilian Minister of Strategic Affairs in and again in His work is seen to offer a vision of humanity and a program to empower individuals, at the core of his philosophy is a view of humanity as greater than the contexts in which it is placed. He sees each individual possessed of the capability to rise to a greater life, at the root of his social thought is the conviction that the world is made and imagined. His work begins from the premise that no natural social, political, property rights, liberal democracy, wage labor — for Unger, these are all historical artifacts that have no necessary relation to the goals of free and prosperous human activity.
An Essay on Personality Save Passion: An Essay on Personality is a philosophical inquiry into human nature by philosopher and politician Roberto Mangabeira Unger. The book explores the individual and his relation to society, asking how one comes to an understanding of self and others.
Unger here sees the root human predicament as the need to establish oneself as a unique individual in the world but at the same time to find commonality and solidarity with others. This exploration is grounded in what Unger calls a modernist image of the human being as one who lives in context but is not bound by context.
He outlines nine passions that organize and are organized by our dealings with others: While these emotional states may be seen as raw emotion, their expression is always conditioned by the context within which the individual mobilizes or learns to mobilize them.
The book was critically hailed as successfully grappling with some of the most fundamental and enduring problems of human existence.
For Unger, there are no natural laws. Rather, he takes to the hilt the modernist thesis that we are shaped by context but not bound by context. As such, we have the power to work both within and beyond any constraints of social or cultural binds. Unger argues that this tradition has two themes: This then gives expression to the idea that humans are never at home in the world and that they are constantly striving to remake the world.
The modernist development takes up this theme but emphasizes interpersonal relations over impersonal reality or good so that no institutional settings can limit the possibilities of humanity.
Indeed, under what auspices can such a philosophical orientation be turned into a normative prescription? Unger turns this question from one of general principles to one of the enactment of a vision or project of self-affirmation.
For Unger, at issue here is not the pure speculation of philosophical inquiry into the nature of human beings and their activities, but rather a transformative project of self and society.
In this way, the task is to realize a vision and enact a program of self-affirmation. The only alternative is to find a better one or fail at self-affirmation. Both respond to the fact of the individual not being the center of the world.
However, by doing so they disengage from the world and others. While Confucianism addresses interdependence, the philosophy elevates it to a level of canonical hierarchy and thus imposes strict constraints.
However, similar to the world's religious and philosophical traditions, it fails to provide a lasting answer to the predicament of human existence. This failure is the constant danger that after liberation the self will return to its customary affairs and routine practices.
Rather than moving onwards to greater feats of humanity and godlike existence, the individual will allow everyday affairs to again take over. This surrender to habit is directly linked to the defeat of the imagination.
Thus metaphysical revolution is needed through a psychology of empowerment and an analysis of social conditions upon which this empowerment relies. In part one, he sets out to define passion as the noninstrumental dealings that we have with others; they organize and are organized around the need and danger that is at the heart of our relations with others.
This definition is developed out of the argument that the individual is in constant conflict in the world:A theory of the emotions and passions that are the - in Unger's words - "liquid substrata" out of which our social structures come. A prequel of sorts to Unger's social and political theory/5.
Passion: An Essay on Personality is a philosophical inquiry into human nature by philosopher and politician Roberto Mangabeira mtb15.com book explores the individual and his relation to society, asking how one comes to an understanding of self and others.
Nov 25, · Passion an essay on personality. 4 stars based on 40 reviews mtb15.com Essay. Observation and ethnographic research paper melanie pontabry illustration essay paul auster ghosts analysis essay engineering marking scheme for essay .
Unger, Roberto Mangabeira. Passion: An Essay on Personality. New York: Free Press, Pp. $ (cloth). Passion is a remarkable work, which in style and content is at odds with "normal" moral and political philosophy.
It is also more political and sees more virtue in the modern world than other recent, critical studies.
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