Lake Bled and Bled Castle by Valvasor, 17th century Panorama of Bled, 18th century Panorama of Bled, late 19th century A settlement area since Mesolithic times, the present-day locality probably arose about during the Slavic settlement of the Eastern Alps.
Bentele and Szyska refer to Krups as the first company with a department dedicated to press relations, set up in Lagerwey shows that the first public relations departments in the Netherlands also emerged at the beginning of the twentieth century.
Moreover, the Dutch claim to have the oldest professional association in the world, established in Denig, European professionals and scientists have been meeting through the IPRA network for decades. Despite its long history, little is known about public relations in Europe. All over Europe, American textbooks are used to study both the concept and practice of public relations.
Such books place the development of public relations in the United States, and few devote any space to aspects of public relations in other countries. We, however, believe that this does not apply for practice of and research on the phenomenon. Most academics on public relations believe that public relations is a cultural construct.
Although it is impossible to see Europe as one cultural and political system, it can clearly be differentiated from USA. What we need to understand is what is common with and what is different from USA.
Some textbooks state that after World War II modern public relations came over to Europe, together with the Marshall aid. Inwe started the debate to answer the question whether public rela- tions is just an Anglo-American concept or whether there is also a European authentic- ity of public relations.
The Delphi study on Public Relations, in which participants from 25 countries participated, is the basis for this document see for a full presentation of the results Van Ruler et al, We, however, will also use other, more informal, sources to typify European public relations and raise some questions about it.
We will discuss five top- ics, raised by the participants of the Delphi study and discussed in the three rounds of this study. This method was developed by employees of the Rand Corporation for assessing future, complex or ambiguous subjects.
It is based on itera- tive and anonymous group interviews. The premise of this method is that iterative measurements will either cause the range of answers to converge on the midrange of the distribution or will show a clear and reasoned dichotomy.
However, this is also its weakness, due to vague concepts and halo effects. The heuristics of the method are nevertheless very interesting.
This is because every statement counts equally; furthermore facts, views and opinions can be clustered before being subjected to in-depth questioning in the fol- lowing rounds.
The quality of the respondents is, of course, critical to the quality of the results. The EBOK project team designed three selection criteria: As many European countries as possible should be involved.
Each country should be represented by an academic and a practitioner. The work of selecting participants started with longtime members of the Association. If more than one candidate was available from a given country, the candidate that fitted our criteria best was consulted on his or her availability.
By these means an initial net- work of 22 potential respondents was identified, one from each of the countries involved. The majority of these individu- als were academics involved in higher education, who were teaching courses that they themselves identified as public relations.
They were asked to help us locate their coun- terparts in countries that were still not represented in the sample. They were also asked to nominate a compatriot who was a prominent practitioner; this individual would then serve as a second respondent from that country.
Unfortunately, this approach was not very successful. A national coordinator only represented most coun- tries. Finally, 37 participants from 25 countries were involved in the project see Appendix. Questionnaires were distributed and collected electronically by e-mail. The first 2 The Bled Manifesto on Public Relations questionnaire was an open and rather informal one.
The aim was to collect as much data, and as many issues and opinions, as possible. These would then be used as input for the following rounds. Data collection was concluded by Marchafter three rounds. This study should, therefore, be seen purely as explorative research.
We take the view, however, that the picture obtained from the participants to this project represents a fascinating starting point for further research.
The naming of the field in European countries The first question we want to raise is the naming of the field.
The commonly used names for this field in the participating countries to the Delphi study differ, not only between countries, but also between practice and science. Commonly used names of the field in practice and in science in European countries Practice Science Public relations 11 x Public relations 3x Communication 5 x Communication 8 x Information 1 x Information 0 x Several names 6 x Several names 2 x Others, none mentioned Others:The Bled Manifesto A manifesto is a declaration of policy and intent.
E-Commerce needs such a manifesto because it is now a key element in the new wealth of na-tions: economic, social and commu-nity wealth. This moves it .
Bled eConference has been shaping electronic interactions since It attracts speakers and delegates from business, government, information technology providers and universities and is the major venue for researchers .
Back to Articles Index. The 10 Causes of the War Between the States by James W. King. Historians have long debated the causes of the war and the Southern perspective differs .
Bled Manifesto of the Writers for Peace Committee Promoting Literature, Defending Freedom of Expression PEN International, the worldâs leading association of writers, promotes a culture of peace based on freedom of expression, dialogue, and exchange.
In the coming weeks and months, geopolitical risks could further boost oil prices in a market that hasn’t been this tight in years. The main risks to oil supply could come . Dictionary of Revolutionary Marxism — Em — EMANCIPATION OF LABOR GROUP “The Emancipation of Labor group was the first Russian Marxist group.
It was founded in Geneva by G.V. Plekhanov in ; the group included P.B. Axelrod, L.G. Deutsch, V.I. Zasulich, and V.N. Ignatov.